U.S. State Capitals

List of the cities that are state capitals in the United States

November 13, 2019

All 50 U.S. state capitals are listed alphabetically below with each being the center of government for its particular state. Some capitals are large cities with Phoenix, Arizona being the largest with 1,445,632 people, and some capitals are smaller towns with Montpelier, Vermont being the smallest with only 7,855 residents.

Most states have changed their capital at least once. The year the current capital was established is listed, and it's almost never the same year the state became a state. The thirteen original states became states when the United States Constitution was ratified.


State
Statehood
Capital
Capital Since
Area (mi2)
Municipal Population
Metro Population
Population Rank in State
Population Rank in U.S.
Comments
Alabama
1819
Montgomery
1846
155.4
205,764
374,536
2
102
In 1902 Dr. Luther Leonidas Hill performed the first open hear surgery in Montgomery.

Alabama (AL)

Statehood: 1819
Capital: Montgomery
Capital Since: 1846
Capital Land Area: 155.4 mi2
Municipal Population: 205,764
Metropolitan Population: 374,536
Population Rank in State: #2
Population Rank in U.S.: #102
Comments: In 1902 Dr. Luther Leonidas Hill performed the first open hear surgery in Montgomery.
Alaska
1959
Juneau
1906
2716.7
31,275
31,275
3
--
Juneau is the second largest U.S. city by municipal land area.

Alaska (AK)

Statehood: 1959
Capital: Juneau
Capital Since: 1906
Capital Land Area: 2716.7 mi2
Municipal Population: 31,275
Metropolitan Population: 31,275
Population Rank in State: #3
Population Rank in U.S.: #--
Comments: Juneau is the second largest U.S. city by municipal land area.
Arizona
1912
Phoenix
1889
474.9
1,445,632
4,192,887
1
6
Phoenix has the largest population of any capital in the U.S.

Arizona (AZ)

Statehood: 1912
Capital: Phoenix
Capital Since: 1889
Capital Land Area: 474.9 mi2
Municipal Population: 1,445,632
Metropolitan Population: 4,192,887
Population Rank in State: #1
Population Rank in U.S.: #6
Comments: Phoenix has the largest population of any capital in the U.S.
Arkansas
1836
Little Rock
1821
116.2
193,524
699,757
1
117

Arkansas (AR)

Statehood: 1836
Capital: Little Rock
Capital Since: 1821
Capital Land Area: 116.2 mi2
Municipal Population: 193,524
Metropolitan Population: 699,757
Population Rank in State: #1
Population Rank in U.S.: #117
Comments:
California
1850
Sacramento
1854
97.2
466,488
2,149,127
6
35

California (CA)

Statehood: 1850
Capital: Sacramento
Capital Since: 1854
Capital Land Area: 97.2 mi2
Municipal Population: 466,488
Metropolitan Population: 2,149,127
Population Rank in State: #6
Population Rank in U.S.: #35
Comments:
Colorado
1876
Denver
1867
153.4
600,158
2,543,482
1
26
Up until 1882 Denver was called Denver City.

Colorado (CO)

Statehood: 1876
Capital: Denver
Capital Since: 1867
Capital Land Area: 153.4 mi2
Municipal Population: 600,158
Metropolitan Population: 2,543,482
Population Rank in State: #1
Population Rank in U.S.: #26
Comments: Up until 1882 Denver was called Denver City.
Connecticut
1788
Hartford
1875
17.3
124,775
1,212,381
3
199

Connecticut (CT)

Statehood: 1788
Capital: Hartford
Capital Since: 1875
Capital Land Area: 17.3 mi2
Municipal Population: 124,775
Metropolitan Population: 1,212,381
Population Rank in State: #3
Population Rank in U.S.: #199
Comments:
Delaware
1787
Dover
1777
22.4
36,047
162,310
2
--
In terms of statehood Dover is the longest serving U.S. state capital.

Delaware (DE)

Statehood: 1787
Capital: Dover
Capital Since: 1777
Capital Land Area: 22.4 mi2
Municipal Population: 36,047
Metropolitan Population: 162,310
Population Rank in State: #2
Population Rank in U.S.: #--
Comments: In terms of statehood Dover is the longest serving U.S. state capital.
Florida
1845
Tallahassee
1824
95.7
181,376
367,413
7
125

Florida (FL)

Statehood: 1845
Capital: Tallahassee
Capital Since: 1824
Capital Land Area: 95.7 mi2
Municipal Population: 181,376
Metropolitan Population: 367,413
Population Rank in State: #7
Population Rank in U.S.: #125
Comments:
Georgia
1788
Atlanta
1868
131.7
420,003
5,286,728
1
40
Atlanta has the largest metro population of all the state capitals.

Georgia (GA)

Statehood: 1788
Capital: Atlanta
Capital Since: 1868
Capital Land Area: 131.7 mi2
Municipal Population: 420,003
Metropolitan Population: 5,286,728
Population Rank in State: #1
Population Rank in U.S.: #40
Comments: Atlanta has the largest metro population of all the state capitals.
Hawaii
1959
Honolulu
1845
85.7
337,256
953,207
1
53

Hawaii (HI)

Statehood: 1959
Capital: Honolulu
Capital Since: 1845
Capital Land Area: 85.7 mi2
Municipal Population: 337,256
Metropolitan Population: 953,207
Population Rank in State: #1
Population Rank in U.S.: #53
Comments:
Idaho
1890
Boise
1865
63.8
205,671
616,561
1
103

Idaho (ID)

Statehood: 1890
Capital: Boise
Capital Since: 1865
Capital Land Area: 63.8 mi2
Municipal Population: 205,671
Metropolitan Population: 616,561
Population Rank in State: #1
Population Rank in U.S.: #103
Comments:
Illinois
1818
Springfield
1837
54.0
116,250
210,170
6
221
Abraham Lincoln once lived in Springfield.

Illinois (IL)

Statehood: 1818
Capital: Springfield
Capital Since: 1837
Capital Land Area: 54.0 mi2
Municipal Population: 116,250
Metropolitan Population: 210,170
Population Rank in State: #6
Population Rank in U.S.: #221
Comments: Abraham Lincoln once lived in Springfield.
Indiana
1816
Indianapolis
1825
361.5
820,445
1,887,877
1
16

Indiana (IN)

Statehood: 1816
Capital: Indianapolis
Capital Since: 1825
Capital Land Area: 361.5 mi2
Municipal Population: 820,445
Metropolitan Population: 1,887,877
Population Rank in State: #1
Population Rank in U.S.: #16
Comments:
Iowa
1846
Des Moines
1857
75.8
203,433
569,633
1
105

Iowa (IA)

Statehood: 1846
Capital: Des Moines
Capital Since: 1857
Capital Land Area: 75.8 mi2
Municipal Population: 203,433
Metropolitan Population: 569,633
Population Rank in State: #1
Population Rank in U.S.: #105
Comments:
Kansas
1861
Topeka
1856
56.0
127,473
230,870
4
193

Kansas (KS)

Statehood: 1861
Capital: Topeka
Capital Since: 1856
Capital Land Area: 56.0 mi2
Municipal Population: 127,473
Metropolitan Population: 230,870
Population Rank in State: #4
Population Rank in U.S.: #193
Comments:
Kentucky
1792
Frankfort
1792
14.7
25,527
70,758
14
--

Kentucky (KY)

Statehood: 1792
Capital: Frankfort
Capital Since: 1792
Capital Land Area: 14.7 mi2
Municipal Population: 25,527
Metropolitan Population: 70,758
Population Rank in State: #14
Population Rank in U.S.: #--
Comments:
Louisiana
1812
Baton Rouge
1880
76.8
229,493
802,484
2
85
Baton Rouge has the tallest state capitol building in the U.S.

Louisiana (LA)

Statehood: 1812
Capital: Baton Rouge
Capital Since: 1880
Capital Land Area: 76.8 mi2
Municipal Population: 229,493
Metropolitan Population: 802,484
Population Rank in State: #2
Population Rank in U.S.: #85
Comments: Baton Rouge has the tallest state capitol building in the U.S.
Maine
1820
Augusta
1832
55.4
19,136
117,114
8
--
Augusta is home to the oldest wooden fort in the U.S.

Maine (ME)

Statehood: 1820
Capital: Augusta
Capital Since: 1832
Capital Land Area: 55.4 mi2
Municipal Population: 19,136
Metropolitan Population: 117,114
Population Rank in State: #8
Population Rank in U.S.: #--
Comments: Augusta is home to the oldest wooden fort in the U.S.
Maryland
1788
Annapolis
1694
6.7
38,394
38,394
7
--
Annapolis is the smallest capital in the U.S. by land area and also has the oldest capitol building.

Maryland (MD)

Statehood: 1788
Capital: Annapolis
Capital Since: 1694
Capital Land Area: 6.7 mi2
Municipal Population: 38,394
Metropolitan Population: 38,394
Population Rank in State: #7
Population Rank in U.S.: #--
Comments: Annapolis is the smallest capital in the U.S. by land area and also has the oldest capitol building.
Massachusetts
1788
Boston
1630
48.4
617,594
4,552,402
1
22
Boston has continuously served as state capital longer than any other in the U.S.

Massachusetts (MA)

Statehood: 1788
Capital: Boston
Capital Since: 1630
Capital Land Area: 48.4 mi2
Municipal Population: 617,594
Metropolitan Population: 4,552,402
Population Rank in State: #1
Population Rank in U.S.: #22
Comments: Boston has continuously served as state capital longer than any other in the U.S.
Michigan
1837
Lansing
1847
35.0
114,297
464,036
5
226
Prior to 1847 Detroit was the state capital of Michigan.

Michigan (MI)

Statehood: 1837
Capital: Lansing
Capital Since: 1847
Capital Land Area: 35.0 mi2
Municipal Population: 114,297
Metropolitan Population: 464,036
Population Rank in State: #5
Population Rank in U.S.: #226
Comments: Prior to 1847 Detroit was the state capital of Michigan.
Minnesota
1858
Saint Paul
1849
52.8
285,068
3,348,659
2
67

Minnesota (MN)

Statehood: 1858
Capital: Saint Paul
Capital Since: 1849
Capital Land Area: 52.8 mi2
Municipal Population: 285,068
Metropolitan Population: 3,348,659
Population Rank in State: #2
Population Rank in U.S.: #67
Comments:
Mississippi
1817
Jackson
1821
104.9
173,514
567,122
1
134
Natchez was the original capital of Mississippi dating back to when it was a U.S. territory.

Mississippi (MS)

Statehood: 1817
Capital: Jackson
Capital Since: 1821
Capital Land Area: 104.9 mi2
Municipal Population: 173,514
Metropolitan Population: 567,122
Population Rank in State: #1
Population Rank in U.S.: #134
Comments: Natchez was the original capital of Mississippi dating back to when it was a U.S. territory.
Missouri
1821
Jefferson City
1826
27.3
43,079
149,807
15
--

Missouri (MO)

Statehood: 1821
Capital: Jefferson City
Capital Since: 1826
Capital Land Area: 27.3 mi2
Municipal Population: 43,079
Metropolitan Population: 149,807
Population Rank in State: #15
Population Rank in U.S.: #--
Comments:
Montana
1889
Helena
1875
14.0
28,190
74,801
6
--

Montana (MT)

Statehood: 1889
Capital: Helena
Capital Since: 1875
Capital Land Area: 14.0 mi2
Municipal Population: 28,190
Metropolitan Population: 74,801
Population Rank in State: #6
Population Rank in U.S.: #--
Comments:
Nebraska
1867
Lincoln
1867
74.6
258,379
302,157
2
72

Nebraska (NE)

Statehood: 1867
Capital: Lincoln
Capital Since: 1867
Capital Land Area: 74.6 mi2
Municipal Population: 258,379
Metropolitan Population: 302,157
Population Rank in State: #2
Population Rank in U.S.: #72
Comments:
Nevada
1864
Carson City
1861
143.4
55,274
55,274
6
--
Carson City is an independent city.

Nevada (NV)

Statehood: 1864
Capital: Carson City
Capital Since: 1861
Capital Land Area: 143.4 mi2
Municipal Population: 55,274
Metropolitan Population: 55,274
Population Rank in State: #6
Population Rank in U.S.: #--
Comments: Carson City is an independent city.
New Hampshire
1788
Concord
1808
64.3
42,695
42,695
3
--

New Hampshire (NH)

Statehood: 1788
Capital: Concord
Capital Since: 1808
Capital Land Area: 64.3 mi2
Municipal Population: 42,695
Metropolitan Population: 42,695
Population Rank in State: #3
Population Rank in U.S.: #--
Comments:
New Jersey
1787
Trenton
1784
7.7
84,913
366,513
10
--
Trenton was the U.S. capital for 54 days in late 1784.

New Jersey (NJ)

Statehood: 1787
Capital: Trenton
Capital Since: 1784
Capital Land Area: 7.7 mi2
Municipal Population: 84,913
Metropolitan Population: 366,513
Population Rank in State: #10
Population Rank in U.S.: #--
Comments: Trenton was the U.S. capital for 54 days in late 1784.
New Mexico
1912
Santa Fe
1610
37.3
75,764
183,732
4
--
Santa Fe is the longest serving state capital in the U.S. and also has the highest elevation of any state capital at 7,199 ft. above sea level.

New Mexico (NM)

Statehood: 1912
Capital: Santa Fe
Capital Since: 1610
Capital Land Area: 37.3 mi2
Municipal Population: 75,764
Metropolitan Population: 183,732
Population Rank in State: #4
Population Rank in U.S.: #--
Comments: Santa Fe is the longest serving state capital in the U.S. and also has the highest elevation of any state capital at 7,199 ft. above sea level.
New York
1788
Albany
1797
21.4
97,856
857,592
6
--

New York (NY)

Statehood: 1788
Capital: Albany
Capital Since: 1797
Capital Land Area: 21.4 mi2
Municipal Population: 97,856
Metropolitan Population: 857,592
Population Rank in State: #6
Population Rank in U.S.: #--
Comments:
North Carolina
1789
Raleigh
1792
114.6
403,892
1,130,490
2
43

North Carolina (NC)

Statehood: 1789
Capital: Raleigh
Capital Since: 1792
Capital Land Area: 114.6 mi2
Municipal Population: 403,892
Metropolitan Population: 1,130,490
Population Rank in State: #2
Population Rank in U.S.: #43
Comments:
North Dakota
1889
Bismarck
1883
26.9
61,272
108,779
2
--

North Dakota (ND)

Statehood: 1889
Capital: Bismarck
Capital Since: 1883
Capital Land Area: 26.9 mi2
Municipal Population: 61,272
Metropolitan Population: 108,779
Population Rank in State: #2
Population Rank in U.S.: #--
Comments:
Ohio
1803
Columbus
1816
210.3
879,170
2,078,725
1
14
Columbus is the second largest state capital (population) in the U.S.

Ohio (OH)

Statehood: 1803
Capital: Columbus
Capital Since: 1816
Capital Land Area: 210.3 mi2
Municipal Population: 879,170
Metropolitan Population: 2,078,725
Population Rank in State: #1
Population Rank in U.S.: #14
Comments: Columbus is the second largest state capital (population) in the U.S.
Oklahoma
1907
Oklahoma City
1910
607.0
579,999
1,252,987
1
31
Oklahoma City is currently the shortest serving state capital.

Oklahoma (OK)

Statehood: 1907
Capital: Oklahoma City
Capital Since: 1910
Capital Land Area: 607.0 mi2
Municipal Population: 579,999
Metropolitan Population: 1,252,987
Population Rank in State: #1
Population Rank in U.S.: #31
Comments: Oklahoma City is currently the shortest serving state capital.
Oregon
1859
Salem
1855
45.7
154,637
390,738
3
149

Oregon (OR)

Statehood: 1859
Capital: Salem
Capital Since: 1855
Capital Land Area: 45.7 mi2
Municipal Population: 154,637
Metropolitan Population: 390,738
Population Rank in State: #3
Population Rank in U.S.: #149
Comments:
Pennsylvania
1787
Harrisburg
1812
8.1
49,528
647,390
9
--

Pennsylvania (PA)

Statehood: 1787
Capital: Harrisburg
Capital Since: 1812
Capital Land Area: 8.1 mi2
Municipal Population: 49,528
Metropolitan Population: 647,390
Population Rank in State: #9
Population Rank in U.S.: #--
Comments:
Rhode Island
1790
Providence
1900
18.5
178,042
1,600,852
1
130
From 1776 to 1853 Providence was one of five co-capitals in Rhode Island.

Rhode Island (RI)

Statehood: 1790
Capital: Providence
Capital Since: 1900
Capital Land Area: 18.5 mi2
Municipal Population: 178,042
Metropolitan Population: 1,600,852
Population Rank in State: #1
Population Rank in U.S.: #130
Comments: From 1776 to 1853 Providence was one of five co-capitals in Rhode Island.
South Carolina
1788
Columbia
1786
125.2
129,272
767,598
2
191

South Carolina (SC)

Statehood: 1788
Capital: Columbia
Capital Since: 1786
Capital Land Area: 125.2 mi2
Municipal Population: 129,272
Metropolitan Population: 767,598
Population Rank in State: #2
Population Rank in U.S.: #191
Comments:
South Dakota
1889
Pierre
1889
13.0
13,646
13,646
8
--

South Dakota (SD)

Statehood: 1889
Capital: Pierre
Capital Since: 1889
Capital Land Area: 13.0 mi2
Municipal Population: 13,646
Metropolitan Population: 13,646
Population Rank in State: #8
Population Rank in U.S.: #--
Comments:
Tennessee
1796
Nashville
1826
473.3
601,222
1,670,890
1
25

Tennessee (TN)

Statehood: 1796
Capital: Nashville
Capital Since: 1826
Capital Land Area: 473.3 mi2
Municipal Population: 601,222
Metropolitan Population: 1,670,890
Population Rank in State: #1
Population Rank in U.S.: #25
Comments:
Texas
1845
Austin
1839
251.5
790,390
1,716,291
4
11
Austin is the 11th most populous city in the U.S.

Texas (TX)

Statehood: 1845
Capital: Austin
Capital Since: 1839
Capital Land Area: 251.5 mi2
Municipal Population: 790,390
Metropolitan Population: 1,716,291
Population Rank in State: #4
Population Rank in U.S.: #11
Comments: Austin is the 11th most populous city in the U.S.
Utah
1896
Salt Lake City
1858
109.1
186,440
1,087,873
1
124

Utah (UT)

Statehood: 1896
Capital: Salt Lake City
Capital Since: 1858
Capital Land Area: 109.1 mi2
Municipal Population: 186,440
Metropolitan Population: 1,087,873
Population Rank in State: #1
Population Rank in U.S.: #124
Comments:
Vermont
1791
Montpelier
1805
10.2
7,855
7,855
6
--
At only 7,855 residents, Montpelier has the smallest population of any state capital in the U.S.

Vermont (VT)

Statehood: 1791
Capital: Montpelier
Capital Since: 1805
Capital Land Area: 10.2 mi2
Municipal Population: 7,855
Metropolitan Population: 7,855
Population Rank in State: #6
Population Rank in U.S.: #--
Comments: At only 7,855 residents, Montpelier has the smallest population of any state capital in the U.S.
Virginia
1788
Richmond
1780
60.1
204,214
1,208,101
4
104

Virginia (VA)

Statehood: 1788
Capital: Richmond
Capital Since: 1780
Capital Land Area: 60.1 mi2
Municipal Population: 204,214
Metropolitan Population: 1,208,101
Population Rank in State: #4
Population Rank in U.S.: #104
Comments:
Washington
1889
Olympia
1853
16.7
46,478
234,670
24
--

Washington (WA)

Statehood: 1889
Capital: Olympia
Capital Since: 1853
Capital Land Area: 16.7 mi2
Municipal Population: 46,478
Metropolitan Population: 234,670
Population Rank in State: #24
Population Rank in U.S.: #--
Comments:
West Virginia
1863
Charleston
1885
31.6
51,400
304,214
1
--
Charleston is the largest city in West Virginia and the smallest capital city in the U.S. that is also its state's largest.

West Virginia (WV)

Statehood: 1863
Capital: Charleston
Capital Since: 1885
Capital Land Area: 31.6 mi2
Municipal Population: 51,400
Metropolitan Population: 304,214
Population Rank in State: #1
Population Rank in U.S.: #--
Comments: Charleston is the largest city in West Virginia and the smallest capital city in the U.S. that is also its state's largest.
Wisconsin
1848
Madison
1838
68.7
233,209
605,435
2
82

Wisconsin (WI)

Statehood: 1848
Capital: Madison
Capital Since: 1838
Capital Land Area: 68.7 mi2
Municipal Population: 233,209
Metropolitan Population: 605,435
Population Rank in State: #2
Population Rank in U.S.: #82
Comments:
Wyoming
1890
Cheyenne
1869
21.1
59,466
91,738
1
--

Wyoming (WY)

Statehood: 1890
Capital: Cheyenne
Capital Since: 1869
Capital Land Area: 21.1 mi2
Municipal Population: 59,466
Metropolitan Population: 91,738
Population Rank in State: #1
Population Rank in U.S.: #--
Comments:
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